Fatty Acid and Lipid Chemistry; find Sigma-Z MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich. Get this from a library! Fatty acid and lipid chemistry. [Frank Denby Gunstone]. Fatty Acids (salts of fatty acids),. • Glycerol, and in some cases other molecular components contained in the lipid,. • Examples: • Neutral fats,. • Phospholipids,. 4.
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NorrisPergamon Press, PadleyChapman and Hall, first editionsecond edition HerslofThe Oily Press, Dundee, The book is dedicated to the next fatty acid and lipid chemistry of lipid scientists.
The plasma membrane is made up of the phospholipid bilayer. The membrane is an amphipathic sheet-like structure fatty acid and lipid chemistry is fluid and electrically polarized.
The membrane itself has little functions, but the proteins that are integrally and peripherally integrated to the membrane help mediate many of the functions that we contribute to membrane.
Fatty acid and lipid chemistry
The membrane is asymmetric in that the proteins are randomly distributed across the membrane, some are attached inside the cell, some outside, and others integrated within membrane.
Also, rapid lateral diffusion and slow transverse diffusion contribute both to the membrane's asymmetric characteristic and fluidity.
In transverse diffusion, phospholipids are flipped inside-out or outside-in, and this flipping is regulated by flipases. However, the longer the fatty acid chains are, the less likely for transverse diffusion to occur. Longer fatty acid and lipid chemistry also decreases the fluidity of the plasma membrane.
There are other factors that may affect plasma membrane's fluidity.
Structural Biochemistry/Organic Chemistry/Lipids - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
For example, the better arranged the fatty acids chains are, the less fluid the membrane is. On top of that, the more unsaturated the fatty acids are, the more fatty acid and lipid chemistry the membrane is.
This is because the double bonds bend the chains that allows sloppy arrangements. The interruption of cholesterol within the membrane also causes more fluidity since the polar hydroxy group in cholesterol disrupts the hydrophobic environment within the phospholipid bilayer.
Glycolipids[ edit ] Glycolipids are sugar glyco- containing lipids. They fatty acid and lipid chemistry derived from sphingosine instead of a form of phospholipids that derives from glycerol phospholipids exist in both derivatives from glycerol and sphingomyelin platform.
Another difference from phospholipids is that glycolipids contain a sugar unit can be glucose or galactose instead of a phosphate group.
Glycolipid molecules exist from the most basic molecule, cerebroside which contains 1 fatty acid unit, a sphingosine backbone, and 1 sugar unit glucose or galactoseto the most complex molecules containing branched chains of multiple sugar residues up to seven residues in gangliosides.
When glycolipids exist in membranes, their sugar residue terminal always face the extracellular side. Chemical structure fatty acid and lipid chemistry Glycolipids Cholesterol[ edit ] Cholesterol Cholesterol is a form of lipids that differs from the rest of its relatives.
It is relatively medium molecule that contains 4 adjacent cyclic hydrocarbon molecules with three six-member rings and one five-member ring that has a hydroxyl and a saturated hydrocarbon chain terminals.
When exist in membranes, the 4 cyclic molecules in the cholesterol molecule lay parallel to the fatty acid chains of the phospholipids, meanwhile the hydroxyl terminal points in the direction with the polar phospholipid fatty acid and lipid chemistry in which it interact with.
Structural Biochemistry/Organic Chemistry/Lipids
Cholesterol molecules exist primarily in nerve cells. The molecule binds to the myelin sheath membrane which provides an outer coating that protects the nerve cell from its surroundings. It is an essential predecessor to sex hormones that exists in males testosterone and females oestradiol.
Also an essential component in vitamin D that enables the body to utilize calcium to fatty acid and lipid chemistry bones.
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Animals acquire very little cholesterol from the food they eat; they make cholesterol within the body.