An Introduction to Computer Architecture Each machine has its own, unique This software, because it is permanently stored in the computer's memory. Recap of MIPS architecture. Why RISC? Other architecture styles. Accumulator architecture; Stack architecture; Memory-Memory architecture; Register. In computer architecture, the memory hierarchy separates computer storage into a hierarchy based on response time.


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The memory unit stores the binary information in the form of bits.

Memory architecture

This loses its data, when power is switched off. This is a permanent storage and does not lose any computer memory architecture when power is switched off. Memory Hierarchy The total memory capacity of a computer can be visualized by hierarchy of components. The memory hierarchy system consists of all storage devices contained in a computer system from the slow Auxiliary Memory to fast Main Memory and to smaller Cache memory.

Auxillary memory access time is generally times that of the main memory, hence it is at the bottom of computer memory architecture hierarchy.

Computer - Memory

When the program not residing in main memory is needed by the CPU, they are brought in from auxiliary memory. On completion, the pointer to the next computer memory architecture is loaded. This continues until a null pointer is found.

To illustrate the use of DMA, let's consider the example of a fly-by transfer of data from a hard-disk controller to memory.

This setup involves specifying the source, destination, and size of the data, as well as other parameters. The disk controller generates a request for service to the DMAC not the processor.


The processor completes the current instruction; places the address, control, and data buses in a high-impedance state floats, tristates, or releases them ; and responds to the DMAC with a HOLD-acknowledge or BG bus granted and enters a dormant state.

Upon receiving a HOLD-acknowledge, the DMAC places the address of the memory location where the transfer to memory will begin onto the address bus and generates computer memory architecture WRITE to the memory while the disk controller places the data on the data bus.

Hence, a direct memory access is accomplished from the disk controller to the memory. DMACs are capable of handling block transfers of data.

Memory Organization | Computer Architecture Tutorial | Studytonight

Once the transfer is complete, the buses are returned to the processor and it resumes normal operation. Some DMA controllers simply read data from a source, hold it internally, and then store it to a destination.

They perform the transfer in exactly the same way that a processor would. computer memory architecture


The advantage in using a DMA controller instead of a processor is that if the transfer were to be performed by the processor, each transfer would still have program fetches associated with it.

Thus, even though the transfer takes place by sequential reads and writes, the DMA controller does not also have to fetch and execute code, thereby providing a faster transfer computer memory architecture a processor.

Support for DMA is normally not found in small microcontrollers.


Some mid-range processors computer memory architecture, low-end bit may have DMA support. Similarly, peripherals intended for small-scale computers will not provide DMA support, whereas peripherals intended for high-speed and powerful computers definitely will have DMA support.

Parallel and Distributed Computers Some embedded applications require greater performance than is achievable from a single processor. For cost reasons, it may not be practical to implement a design with the latest superscalar RISC processor, or perhaps the application lends itself to distributed processing where the tasks are run across several communicating machines.

It may make more sense to use a fleet of lower-cost processors, distributed throughout the installation.

Designing Embedded Hardware, 2nd Edition by John Catsoulis

It is becoming increasingly computer memory architecture to see embedded computer memory architecture implemented using parallel processors.

Introduction to parallel architectures The traditional architecture for computers follows the conventional, Von Neumann serial architecture. Computers based on this form usually have a single, sequential processor.

The main limitation of this form of computing architecture is that the conventional processor is able to execute only one instruction at a time. Algorithms that run on these machines must therefore be expressed as a sequential problem.

A given task must be broken down into a series of sequential steps, each to be executed in order, one at a time. Many problems that are computationally intensive are also highly computer memory architecture.

  • Computer Memory
  • Memory architecture - Wikipedia
  • Memory hierarchy
  • Memory Organization in Computer Architecture

An algorithm that is applied to a large data set characterizes these problems.